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Biography: Mahmoud Darwish

Poet and journalist, an interpreter of the exile and hopes of the Palestinian people. Darwish's major theme in his poems is the fate of his homeland. He uses simple vocabulary and plain, recurrent images: an open wound ('wound that fights'), blood ('we will write our names in crimson vapor'), mirrors ('shape of the soul in a mirror'), stones ('my words were stones'), and weddings. Darwish often addresses the reader arguing fiercely, defending, and pleading, as a prophetic voice from a large supporting choir.

"Sister, there are tears in my throat
and there is fire in my eyes:
I am free.
No more shall I protest at the Sultan's Gate.
All who have died, all who shall die at the Gate of Day
have embraced me, have made of me a weapon."
(from 'Diary of a Palestinian wound')

Mahmoud Darwish was born into a landowning Sunni Muslim family in Barweh, a village east of Acre. After the war of 1948, the Israelis occupied the village, and Darwish with his family became refugees When a new Jewish settlement was built on Barweh's ruins, the family settled to another Arab village, where Darwish grew up. This experience, uprootedness, marked later deeply Darwish's life. After graduating from a secondary school, Darwish moved to Haifa. He worked in journalism and in 1961 he joined the Israeli Communist Party, Rakah, and edited for some time Rakah's newspaper, Al-Ittihad. During these years he experienced imprisonment and house arrest.

Darwish studied in 1970 at a university in Moscow, USSR. He left in 1971 Israel and settled in Beirut, Lebanon, where he worked for the PLO and edited the monthly Shu'un Filistiniyya, Palestinian Affairs. Later he was appointed editor-in-chief of the Palestinian literary and cultural periodical, Al-Karmel. When Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, the PLO abandoned its headquarters there and Darwish moved to Cyprus. He was elected to the PLO executive in 1987, but six years later he resigned in opposition to the the Oslo Agreement, which earned in 1994 the Nobel Peace Price to Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East. Darwish demand a tougher stand in the negotiations with Israel. In March 2000 Ehud Barak's government faced a political crisis following a proposal by the education minister to include Darwish's poems in the school curriculum. In 2001 Darwish reveived the Prize for Cultural Freedom established by Lannan Foundation.

Darwish started to write poems while still at school. His first collection appeared in 1960 when he was only nineteen. With the second collection, Awraq al-zaytun (1964), he gained a reputation as one of the leading poets of the resistance. The work dealt with two general topic: love and politics. Gradually the love for a woman transformed in subsequent works into a unbreakable union between the poet and his homeland. "Her words and her silence, Palestinian, / Her voice, Palestinian, / Her birth and her death, Palestinian." (from 'The Lover') Qasidat Bayrut (1982) and Madih al-xill al'ali (1983) took their subject from the Palestinian resistance to the Israeli siege of Beirut during the summer of 1982. Beirut was bombed almost constantly from 13 June to 12 August to drive the PLO guerrillas out of the city. In English Darwish's anguished account of the invasion was published in Memory for Forgetfulness (1995). The text is fragmented, like a broken mirror. "To whom shall I offer my innocent silence?" asks the poet on the war-raveged streets, walking slowly, "that a jet fighter may not miss me." Images are nightmarish, the poet no longer waits for the end of the steely howling from the sea. In the middle of the infernal dawn, the writer says that "sleep is peace. Sleep is a dream, born out of a dream."

"The sea is walking in the streets. The sea is dangling from windows and the branches of shriveled trees. The sea drops from the sky and comes into the room. Blue, white, foam, waves. I don't like the sea. I don't want the sea, because I don't see a shore, or a dove. I see in the sea nothing excerpt the sea." (from Memory for Forgetfulness)

Darwish has received several awards for his work, including the 1969 Lotus Prize by the Union of Afro-Asian Writers, the Lenin Peace Prize in 1983, and France's Knighthood of Arts and Belles Lettres in 1997. Many of his heroic poems have become popular as songs. In 1999 the well-known musician Marcel Khalifeh was brought before the Beirut Court on charges of blasphemy. The charges related to his song entitled 'I am Yusuf, my father', which was based on Darwish's poem and cited a verse from the Qur'an. In this poem Darwish shared the pain of Yusuf (Joseph), who was rejected by his brothers. "Oh my father, I am Yusuf / Oh father, my brothers neither love me nor want me in their midst". Darwish has also used the lamentations Isaiah and Jeremiah from the Old Testament, to condemn injustice.

Darwish has described the conflict between Palestinians and Israelis as "a struggle between two memories." Ibrahim Muhawi, his translator, has written that "his is a poetry of witnessing." In 1988 Darwish's doubtful poem 'Those Who Pass Fleeting Words' upset his Israeli readers, who considered it a call for the destruction of Jews. "O those who pass between fleeting words / It is time for you to be gone / Live wherever you like, but do not live among us / It is time for you to be gone / Die wherever you like, but do not die among us". Darwish himself has admitted that the poem was too slogan-like. Since 1970s Darwish has led somewhat nomadic life. He has lived in Lebanon, Cyprus, Tunisia, Jordan, and France. In 1996, after 26 years of exile, Darwish returned to Israel and visited his hometown. He settled in Ramallah, a central West Bank Palestinian town, where Yasser Arafat had his headquarters. The city became a battlefield in 2002.

Selected bibliography:
Asafir bila ajniha, 1960
Ashiq min filastin, 1966 - A Lover from Palestine
Akhir al-layl, 1967
Yawmiyyat jurh filastini, 1969
al-'Asafir tamut fi al-jalil, 1970
Uhibbuki aw la uhibbuki, 1972
Selected Poems, 1973
Muhawalah raqm 7, 1974
Tilka suratuha wa-hadha intihar al-ashiq, 1975
Ahmad al-za'tar, 1976
A'ras, 1977
The Music of Human Flesh, 1980
Qasidat Bayrut, 1982
Madih al-zill al-'ali, 1983
Victims of a Map: A Bilingual Anthology of Arabic Poetry by Samih al-Qasim, Adonis, and Mahmud Darwish, 1984 (trans. by Abdullah al-Udhari)
Sand and Other Poems, 1986
Hiya ughniyah, 1986
Dhakirah li-al-nisyan, 1986
Fi wasf halatina, 1987
From Beriut, 1993
Memory for Forgetfulness: August, Beirut, 1982, 1995
Psalms, 1995 (trans. by Ben Bennani)
Flowers of Palestine, 1997
Sareer El Ghariba, 1998
Then Palestine, 1999 (with Larry Towell, photographer, and Rene Backmann)
The Adam of Two Edens: Selected Poems, 2001 (ed. by Munir Akash and Daniel Moore)
Unfortunately, It Was Paradise: Selected Poems, 2003 (trans.by Munir Akash, Carolyn Forché, Sinan Antoon, Amira El-Zein)
The Butterfly's Burden, 2006 (trans. by Fady Joudah)
Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone? 2006 (trans. by Jeffrey Sacks)


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